What is Epithelioid Mesothelioma?
Epithelioid Mesothelioma is cancer that results from mutations of the epithelial cell after an individual has been exposed to asbestos. Approximately seventy present of mesothelioma cases accounts from the epithelioid cell types. The preferred prognosis is given to patients because it does not spread quickly while at the same time, it is not aggressive compared to other cells types. When the epithelial cells are exposed to the asbestos, the result in being cancerous.
Epithelioid Mesothelioma Subtypes:
There are four subtypes of Epithelioid Mesothelioma
- Small cell mesothelioma
Adenoid mesothelioma is characterized with the cells being cube-like or flat and can be found on the lining of glands making it difficult to distinguish them with a hose of adenocarcinoma. The small cells mesothelioma was first discovered in 1992 and can only be identified by pathologist through cytologic analysis by magnifying the cells.
The cystic mesothelioma is prevalent in women of childbearing age. It usually occurs in the abdomen, and it happens to be very rare and benign. Papillary mesothelioma is an exception as it only occurs in the abdomen of women. On the other hand, deciduoid mesothelioma occurs in both women who have and have not been exposed to asbestos. For men, they get it after they are exposed to asbestos.
The signs that an individual is suffering from Epithelioid Mesothelioma differ from patient to another. Epithelioid Mesothelioma occurs in four stages depending on the severity of the growth of cancer. The first stage is usually the easier to diagnose and the fourth the most difficult. The patients with the condition have a problem where they have short breaths (dyspnea), the experience chest pains and they have pleural effusion where the pleural fluids get concentrated around the lining of the lungs.
Other patients will have a fever, lose weight and get fatigue from the short breaths and there can be persistent coughing. These symptoms become more severe and happen quite often as the tumor grows.
The main that has been found to greatly contribute to the emergence of the condition is when the epithelial cells are exposed to asbestos. However, in recent times, there are other causes but are yet to be confirmed medically.
The treatment for Epithelioid Mesothelioma depends on the stage of the growth of cancer. Prognosis is depended on the gender of the patient, as females tend to live longer than males. Age is one where the younger ones receive a better prognosis. Histology of the type of cells where epithelioid are treated while biphasic or sarcomatoid is more difficult to treat. Metastasis is the rate at which it is spread, where the less spreading, the better the prognosis. The four stages mentioned also affect prognosis where the fourth is the most advanced and more complex to treat.
The earlier the Epithelioid Mesothelioma is detected, the easier it is to diagnose. Multimodal therapy is preferred for the patients whose cancer has not spread to the chest all over. The therapy is composed of a combination of treatments that are anticancer like chemotherapy, surgery and radiation therapy. Surgery focus on complete removal of the area affected in debulking. In the recent past, there have been emerging treatment methods like immunotherapy and gene therapy.
Immunotherapy is all about taking the immune cells of the patient to the laboratory; they are modified and infused in blood transfusion to the body. When infused the react with the cancer cells. However, the mode is still in clinical trials.
Gene therapy is under study where it involves injecting the modified viruses to the Epithelioid Mesothelioma cancer cells making it easier to kill them. The results have been that the tumors slow to grow or even shrink after the treatment.